Black Lives Matter protest: How to prepare for a protest – a guide

Millions have been joining protests across the world to call for an end to police brutality, following the death of George Floyd, and unarmed black man whilst in police custody. While protests in the UK have so far been peaceful, with the exception of one journalist being attacked on Wednesday’s march, protests can sometimes go wrong, particularly when feelings are running high around a subject, and confrontations with the police have been common throughout the American protests.

Black Lives Matter, a civil rights organisation, has been putting on protests since Mr Floyd died last week, which have been well documented in the media.

The protests are calling for an overhaul of the American criminal justice system, after decades of violence at the hands of the police against black Americans.

All four police officers involved in the George Floyd case have now been charged, but the fight continues for other black people who have died in police custody and not been awarded any justice for losing their lives.

Here are some simple ways to keep yourself safe and comfortable at any protest:

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Wear a face mask

The coronavirus pandemic is still far from over in the UK, despite the lifted restrictions.

In the UK everyone has a right to peacefully protest even in a pandemic, something Boris Johnson agreed earlier this week.

But to minimise the risk to yourself and others, wear a face mask and practice social distancing where possible.

Designate a buddy

If you go in a group, designate buddies for each other and promise to stick close by each other.

This helps minimise the risk of getting lost on your own, and if you get separated you have someone to stick with.

Also arrange meeting points and times just in case anyone gets seperated.

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Wear comfortable shoes

It should go without saying, but wearing comfortable shoes is key, even if you’re only going to a sit-in protest.

Wear closed-toe shoes – it’s very likely someone will stand on your feet at some point, even though crowds should be following social distancing advice currently.

Also bring plasters and blister pads, just in case your shoes let you down.

Have your emergency contacts prepared

Using ICE at the end of their name, designate your emergency contacts in your phone.

Protests rarely turn violent in the UK, but it’s wise to have them prepared just in case anything else happens to you, such as falling ill.

Be aware that phone signal can be pretty bad in a protest when there’s a lot of people around.

Bring essential items

Even if you plan on being home in time for tea, you should bring with you anything that you would need if you got caught out.

This mostly means medication, but also bring foods that will give you plenty of energy and lots of water.

Protests are generally friendly places but do not share your supplies with anyone else currently, considering the coronavirus pandemic.

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Sophie Wessex diet: The one food that gives the Countess her healthy glow

Sophie, Countess of Wessex, 55, is married to Prince Edward, 56, and has been dubbed the ‘Royal Family’s secret weapon.’ The Queen’s daughter-in-law is said to be a favourite and is praised in royal circles for her low key, no-fuss approach to engagements.

While Sophie is less high profile that Kate, Duchess of Cambridge, 38, she has a loyal band of followers who gush over her elegant outfits and glowing complexion.

The Countess, like Kate, is said to stick to strict exercise regime which includes running three miles a week and cycling.

According to reports Sophie has £999 lightweight bike and enjoys long-distance cycling. She is also a fan of pilates and swims regularly.

Aside from her gruelling exercise regime Sophie is careful about what she eats and favours plant-based foods, an expert has claimed.

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Lily Simpson, a nutritional expert and founder of The Detox Kitchen previously told Mail Online: “Sophie Wessex looks fabulous thanks to her beautiful glowing skin.

“A diet of plant-based foods and lean protein has a huge impact on the appearance of skin, as does keeping well hydrated and getting proper sleep.”

Rosalind Chapman, founder of cosmeceutical brand Transformulas told Mail Online the Countess supplements her diet with good skincare.

Ms Chapman said: “Sophie leads a very healthy lifestyle – she rides horses and runs regularly both of which help keep her body and skin in great condition.

“She also lives out in the country which means there is less exposure to the damage caused by pollution and free radicals.’

She added: “The tone and texture of her skin is beautiful which suggests she uses some sort of brightening serum.

“Although she has some fine lines, her complexion is peaches and cream and that is what is most important for mature skin.

“A lack of tone and texture is far more ageing than lines and wrinkles.”

Sophie has made regular appearances on video calls during lockdown and recently teamed up with Kate, Duchess of Cambridge and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall for a special project.

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According to People, Kate, Sophie and Camilla joined forces and made phone calls to vulnerable people isolated during lockdown.

The Fab Three took part in the NHS Volunteer Responders programme, which is coordinated by the Royal Voluntary Service (RVS), and sees participants ‘check-in and chat’ with people.

The Countess of Wessex had a chat with Harry Deboo, 89, from Liverpool, who lost his wife around three years ago and recently had a triple bypass.

After speaking to Sophie, Harry said: “It was great to chat to The Countess of Wessex and really made my week.

“I have one son who doesn’t live locally – so I don’t get to see many people – especially now.”

He added: “I also like to keep the memory of my wife alive and it was great to chat about her.

“She really listened to every word and it was great to share our lockdown experiences together.”

Sophie has been spending lockdown with Prince Edward and their two children – Lady Louise Windsor, 16, and James Viscount Severn, 12, at their royal residence Bagshot Park in Surrey.

Sophie has volunteered undercover for a string of local charities during the crisis.

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SpaceX launch: Russia slams NASA mission – ‘Should have happened a long time ago’

NASA astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley made history on Saturday, May 30, after they launched from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida towards the International Space Station (ISS). The history was two-fold, with it being the first launch from American soil since 2011, as well as being the first time that astronauts were sent into space on a private space ship.

Since 2011, international space agencies, including NASA, have been relying on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, created by the national space agency Roscosmos, to taxi astronauts to and from the ISS for cost reasons.

However, private companies such as SpaceX have now made it affordable for the likes of NASA to launch from home turf once again.

But Roscosmos, the Russian space agency which usually has a respectful relationship with NASA, has downplayed the achievement, implying that the US should have been launching from its own soil all along.

Roscosmos spokesman Vladimir Ustimenko said: “We don’t really understand the hysteria sparked by the successful launch of a Crew Dragon spacecraft.

“What should have happened a long time ago happened.”

Mr Ustimenko also hit back at US President Donald Trump’s claims the US will be the first back to the Moon and the first nation to put humans on Mars.

Following the successful launch, President Trump said US astronauts would return to the Moon in 2024 “to establish a permanent presence and a launching pad to Mars.”

He added: “And the first woman on the Moon will be an American woman and the first nation to land on Mars will be the United States of America.

“We are not going to be number two anywhere.”

However, Mr Ustimenko disagreed with President Trump, hinting that Russia has something up its sleeve.

He tweeted: “Already this year we will conduct tests of two new rockets and resume our lunar program next year.”

Alexey Pushkov, a member of the upper house of parliament in Russia, also downplayed the US’s achievements.

He said: “This is a flight to the International Space Station, not to Mars.”

However, the US was pleased with its landmark mission.

Speaking to the men from mission control in Houston, Texas, NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine said: “The whole world saw this mission and we are so, so proud of everything you’ve done for our country and, in fact, to inspire the world.”

Other firms are also working on creating commercial space travel, such as Jeff Bezos’ Blue Origin and Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic.

SpaceX has gone from strength to strength in its launch capabilities in Florida at the Kennedy Space Center and nearby Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, going from 11 rocket launches in 2019 to a proposed 38 in 2020.

However, the Elon Musk-backed firm has no plans to halt its progress and is aiming to launch 70 rockets from its Florida sites by 2023.

Missions will include launching the Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy rockets, including upping the ante in getting 12,000 Starlink satellites into Earth’s orbit.

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Bruce Forsyth: TV star’s initial confusion over Strictly Come Dancing exposed

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Bruce Forsyth is remembered for his cheeky humour, countless catchphrases and dancing talent, after more than seven decades in the entertainment industry. The TV star, who died in 2017 at the age of 89, was honoured with a Guinness World Record for the longest career of any male, five years before he passed. During his illustrious stint as a variety act performer, he fronted a number of popular shows including ‘Sunday Night at the London Palladium’, ‘Generation Game’ and ‘Play Your Cards Right’. His last gig on the small screen was as the co-host of ‘Strictly Come Dancing’ alongside Tess Daly, until he was forced to retire after several bouts of bad health. But in unearthed accounts, the showbiz legend vented that he “didn’t miss” BBC show ‘Strictly’ because he thought he would have a different and bigger role.

Bruce Forsyth retired from the world of entertainment at the age of 86 – following an unforgettable career across TV, radio and theatre.

In a candid confession, the popular presenter admitted he never wanted to quit showbiz because it kept him alive and youthful.

He said: “On stage I think I’m 35, working takes over my whole body and I become a younger man – that’s why I won’t stop.”

Shortly before his retirement from ‘Strictly’ in 2014, the star admitted leaving TV was “the last thing in the world I want to do” and stated: “This isn’t Brucie walking into the sunset.”

Despite no longer being able to deal with the “rigours” of live presenting, he continued to host Christmas and charity editions of the show – that were all prerecorded.

Bruce, who was knighted by Her Royal Highness, Queen Elizabeth II, in 2011 after an MP petition, spent more than a decade fronting ‘Strictly’ with Tess Daly.

Following his final farewell from the show in 2015, he vented that he felt misled by the TV programme and his role within it.

He told ITV’s ‘This Morning’: “I don’t miss doing Strictly because it was never the show that I thought it would be.

‘I thought it’d be a comedy show – me getting among the contestants and showing them how to dance, and them all falling over. It was a different show.’

Despite his grumbling, he confessed to envying the dancers on the show because he “used to do all that kind of thing”.

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This referred to his career beginnings, when he performed on the stage under the name ‘Boy Bruce, the Mighty Atom’ before making a name for himself as a TV compere.

Bruce credited his showbiz success and enduring appeal, with ensuring there was a lot of variety during his act, a 2008 MailOnline article reported.

He said: “There is singing, dancing, impressions, anecdotes. I involve the audience all the time; they are half my show.

“I pretend to be annoyed when they laugh at the wrong places and I get them up on stage.

“Even accomplished comedians struggle to do an hour on stage, but I mix things up — about six minutes of stories then I’m on the piano, then I do a tap dance.”

Recently, before the coronavirus lockdown, his third wife Wilnelia Merced sold the couple’s £5.5million Wentworth estate, in Surrey, after claimed he couldn’t live their “without Bruce”.

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John Humphrys health: BBC Two’s Mastermind presenter ‘on verge of becoming an alcoholic’

John Humphrys holds more than 45 years of journalism experience under his belt. He grilled politicians on BBC’s Radio 4 Today programme, reported on the Watergate affair while living across the pond, and had a bit of a drinking problem too.

In a candid interview with The Telegraph in 2006, John revealed: “I used to drink a huge, huge amount: beer, wine, whisky, brandy, you name it.

“Absolutely anything. I was on the verge of becoming an alcoholic.”

He continued: “I would have a couple of martinis before lunch, a bottle of wine with lunch, a brandy and a cigar after lunch, then come back to the office, crack open a bottle of wine and carry on drinking.”

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It wasn’t till a good friend of his pulled him to the side and said: “Look, John, you have got to stop this.”

Still young, at 32 years old, John stopped drinking. “I wouldn’t be here if I had carried on drinking,” John confessed.

After addressing his relationship with alcohol, John went on to become a very big name in the media.

Alcoholism – do you have a drinking problem?

Drink Aware is an independent UK-wide alcohol education charity.

It stated: “Alcoholism is the most serious form of problem drinking, and describes a strong, often uncontrollable, desire to drink.”

People suffering from alcoholism “may build up a physical tolerance or experience withdrawal symptoms if they stop”.

Otherwise known as alcohol addiction or alcohol dependence, the charity explained: “Alcoholics can be secretive about it and can become angry if confronted.”

Symptoms of alcoholism

Alcoholism can present itself in the following symptoms, for instance, appearing intoxicated more regularly and an inability to say no to alcohol.

Some sufferers may have a lack of interest in previously normal activities, while others may need to drink more to achieve the same effect.

Moreover, alcoholics may appear tired, unwell or irritable and may experience anxiety, depression or other mental health issues.

It’s also a sign when someone becomes secretive and dishonest about their drinking.

Treating alcoholism

The very first step of treating alcoholism is acknowledging there is a problem.

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Drink Aware add that the second step is to seek help from a healthcare professional, such as your local GP to be referred to a specialist.

Alternatively, alcohol support services are available, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA).

AA is free and there is no waiting list to join the support network – their helpline is 0800 9177 650.

Doctors will diagnose alcoholism when three or more of the following have been present together in the past year:

  • An overwhelming desire to drink
  • An inability to stop or to control harmful drinking
  • Withdrawal symptoms when stopping drinking
  • Evidence of alcohol tolerance
  • Pursuing the consumption of alcohol to the exclusion of alternative pleasures
  • Continuing to drink despite clear evidence of harmful consequences

A key stage of treatment is detoxification – this involves stopping drinking completely.

This is so the body can adjust to being without alcohol in its system.

During this time a person may experience physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms.

Examples of physical withdrawal included hand tremors, sweating and nausea.

Psychological alcohol withdrawal can include irritability, restlessness and insomnia.

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Elon Musk’s SpaceX will change US space agency in MAJOR way today

The launch is set to take place this afternoon at around 4.33pm Eastern Time – or about 8.33pm in the UK – from the historic Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Both US President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence will be in attendance to watch the launch in person.

It will see two NASA astronauts – Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley – launch to space from the United States for the first time since July 2011, when NASA’s Space Shuttle programme made its last ever flight.

Since then, all NASA astronauts have had to launch to the space station using Russian technology, with launches taking place in Kazakhstan, The Register reports.

This launch will end the US space agency’s domestic launch hiatus, and it marks an important milestone for billionaire Elon Musk’s SpaceX, too.

It will be the first time ever that a private company launches astronauts to the space station.

It will also be the first time that SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule launches astronauts into space, having gone through years of development and testing.

The capsule has been to space station before, but without any astronauts on board.

SpaceX has also been testing the capsule’s emergency launch abort system, which rapidly carries itself away from the rocket below it in the event of a mid-flight failure.

The capsule will sit atop SpaceX’s flagship Falcon 9 rocket – notable for being the world’s first reusable rocket booster.

The Crew Dragon is noticeably more sleek than any of the more functional-looking crewed vehicles used by Russia or NASA.

The smooth contours and minimalistic interior – coupled with the similarly glossy flight suits donned by the astronauts in-flight – make SpaceX’s approach to spaceflight look more like science fiction than reality.

But it is reality, and the launch today will put SpaceX another step ahead of rival private US space-faring firm Boeing.

NASA has selected both firms to help stimulate a marketplace in the US for going to space. It awarded SpaceX with $3.1 billion in funding to help it meet the challenge, and Boeing with $4.5 billion, Reuters reports.

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The two companies have used the funds to develop space capsules, but Boeing’s offer – the CST-100 Starliner – is not due to launch its first crew until next year.

But the Crew Dragon capsule has not been without its problems in development.

In April 2019, one of the capsules exploded during testing, with SpaceX’s vice president Hans Koenigsmann later stating that the accident was due to an oxidizer leak.

Oxidizer is what helps rocket fuel burn. In response to the leak, SpaceX said it changed the types of valve that regulate the oxidizer flow, Wired reports.

Although the Crew Dragon capsule is not to be confused with the Falcon 9 rocket itself, it does contain many small rocket engines.

These small engines – called the Draco thrusters – allow the capsule to orient itself during the mission and adjust its orbit if necessary.

In addition, eight larger thrusters – appropriately called SuperDraco engines – are there to allow the capsule to perform the aforementioned rapid escape manoeuvre away from the rocket in the event of an emergency.

For today’s launch, The Verge reports that the two astronauts will arrive at the launch site in a Tesla Model X – an electric car made by Elon Musk’s other prominent firm, Tesla.

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Lenny Henry: Heartbreaking reason why BBC star wished he ‘learned to fight’ exposed

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Sir Lenny Henry recently fronted the BBC show ‘The Big Night In’, a fundraiser for children’s charities meant to entertain the British public during the coronavirus lockdown. The comedy star first appeared on TV screens in a talent competition for the show ‘New Faces’ more than 35 years ago. He went onto front a number of popular sitcoms including ‘Tiswas’ along with writing TV scripts and becoming an equal rights activist. Earlier this month, the comedian gave an insight into his childhood, growing up in Birmingham, during an interview with BBC documentary maker Louis Theroux. On his podcast ‘Grounded with…’, he revealed that he had been a “punching bag” at school, was physically abused by his mother and discovered the identity of his real father in a hard way.

Sir Lenny revealed that while he grew-up he was regularly beaten by his mother, who at times used household items to enforce the cruel form of “discipline” 

He believes the abuse at home combined with the pressure to fit in at British schools, as a child born to parents who immigrated from Jamaica, led him especially susceptible to excessive bullying. 

The comedian reflected: “You don’t want to be walked on, you don’t want to be a doormat for people and I think there was an overeagerness to be everyone’s friend and to be liked.

“It’s the common trope of comedians, they want to be liked and I was no different but after a while you do get the feeling that  actually you should have pushed back at that guy and stuck up for yourself more. 

“I think it’s important to stand up for something otherwise you’ll fall for anything and I wish that one of my parental male figures had said that to me.” 

Sir Lenny explained that he was a well-behaved child because he knew there were “consequences for ill behaviour and that was violence”.

“I think it’s important to stand up for something otherwise you’ll fall for anything and I wish that one of my parental male figures had said that to me.” 

Sir Lenny explained that he was a well-behaved child because he knew there were “consequences for ill behaviour and that was violence”.

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“I wouldn’t dream of that stuff now but as a little kid I had been brought up to ‘integrate and be everybody’s friend’ and so suddenly you found yourself being internally wounded by things that people said and not knowing what to do about it.”

He recalled being racially abused for “quite a long period” at primary and secondary school on a near daily basis.

Sir Lenny added: “Every day [when] you’re walking through the gates, somebody would try to call you a name and try to instigate a fight and I [couldn’t] fight so I’d always be there with my fists up.”

Later he explained that a “couple of growth spurts” that left him standing tall at “six foot” and putting on “some timber” deterred his tormentors – but even then he was treated differently.

He added: “We had an England school boy boxer at my school, he used to use me as a punching bag because I was big and I could take it, so this is the kind of stuff I was having to deal with on a daily basis.” 

For help call the Samaritans on 08457 909090 or visit samaritans.org

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Experts reveal the crucial role testosterone could be playing in boosting coronavirus

Various theories have been put forward in an attempt to explain this results with some pointing out men are more likely to smoke. But prostate cancer experts have theorised the data might be caused by the sex hormone testosterone. Italian doctors have found patients given androgen deprivation therapy, which radically cuts testosterone levels, were four times less likely to die from coronavirus.

A protein, TMPRSS2, is driven up by testosterone and scientists think the virus could use this protein to unlock cells.

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Researchers at London’s Institute for Cancer Research are examining the link further, while the University of California, Los Angeles is looking at testosterone blocking therapy to help with coronavirus treatment.

Discussing the hypothesis that testosterone was making men more susceptible to coronavirus with the Mail on Sunday, Professor Nick James of the Institute for Cancer Research said it was, “biologically plausible.

“One of the proteins the virus appears to bind to in lungs is TMPRSS2. It’s a sort of lock and key thing: having bound to this protein, it provides the virus with a route into the cell.


“You would therefore predict that men on treatments for prostate cancer that reduce their testosterone levels should be protected relative to men who are not on such treatments – meaning most men.”

Professor James will examine data from around 8,000 prostate cancer patients in a trial he runs to see if those on treatment that reduces hormones has made them less likely to be hospitalised with coronavirus.

He warned, however, that being on testosterone cutting drugs as a preventive measure should be avoided due to their severe side effects.

Professor James warned: “Being on these drugs is the male equivalent of going through the menopause.

“You would almost certainly cause more harm than good.”

Testosterone plays a key role in the building of male reproductive tissues.

It can also increase muscle and bones mass as well as body hair.

The hormone has been linked to preventing osteoporosis.

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This is a disease which weakens human bone, typically there are no symptoms until the first bone break.

It becomes more common with age.

Data says it is more common in women then it is with men.

In 2010, 22 million women in the European Union had osteoporosis, compared to just 5.5 million men.

In the same year, in the US, there were around 8 million women with the condition and around 1-2 million men.

Typically, testosterone levels in men begin to gradually and slowly drop at around the age of 40 according to Harvard Health.

The coronavirus outbreak is closely related to the 2003 SARS outbreak.

In Hong Kong, 21.9 percent of males with the disease died.

But for females, this was 13.2 percent.

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Vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms: The sign in your vision you could be lacking B12

Vitamin B12 deficiency occurs when the autoimmune system attacks cells in the stomach – named pernicious anaemia. There’s a sign in your vision that you could be lacking the nutrient.

Inside the stomach there’s a protein called intrinsic factor.

Someone suffering from pernicious anaemia has an immune system that attacks cells in the stomach.

Specifically, the immune system targets cells that are responsible for making intrinsic factor.

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Usually, intrinsic factor combines with vitamin B12 – sourced from food – and travels to a part of the gut called the distal ileum.

Here, the mixture of vitamin B12 and intrinsic factor is absorbed into the body.

This enables the nutrient to benefit the body’s red blood cells, nerve cells and DNA.

With pernicious anaemia, this doesn’t happen – instead, prolonged absence of vitamin B12 leads to symptoms.

Researchers from Mahidol University, Thailand, did a case study on a young man who had some of his bowel removed.

Having suffered from gangrene at a young age, the boy had his parts of his bowel – including the ileum – cut out at 11 years old.

At the time of the study, the 19-year-old has low levels of vitamin B12 in his body.

This would make sense, as the part of the bowel where vitamin B12 is usually absorbed – the ileum – had been cut out.

He also had less than the normal number of cells in his bone marrow – called hypocellular – and the bone marrow is where red blood cells are created.

He had complained of blurred vision and his visual acuity was 5/200.

Treatment was intramuscular injections of 1,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin – a man-made form of vitamin B12.

Four months later, the man’s visual acuity improved, as did his levels of vitamin B12 and the bone marrow returned to normal functioning.

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The researchers concluded: “This is a frank case of optic neuropathy in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency due to a massive small bowel resection.”

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency

The NHS confirms “disturbed vision” is one symptom caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency.

Others include depression, irritability, and changes in the way you walk and move around.

Additionally, some people may experience mouth ulcers, pins and needles, and a pale yellow tinge to the skin.

Treatment

Treatment for a vitamin B12 deficiency is injections of man-made versions of the nutrient.

This would either be hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin – the latter was the treatment option for the boy in the case study.

In the UK, hydroxocobalamin is the recommended option as it stays in the body for longer.

These injections will be administered by a medical professional, such as a nurse or doctor.

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Coronavirus test: NHS to provide antibody tests after successful negotiations

When it comes to testing for COVID-19, at the moment, the only testing available to all adults and children aged over five are swab tests to check if someone is infected with the deadly virus. However, tests will be available on the NHS “for people who need them”, No 10 stated. How do these tests work and does it mean if infected you may get infected again?

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Antibody tests will be supplied on the NHS after a deal was agreed on.

Health and care workers will be first in line for these tests in the hopes to bring a clearer picture on the amount of infections in the UK.

Health Secretary Matt Hancock will set out further details about these tests on the NHS today and will discuss in more detail the deal which was secured after successful negotiations between the Government and pharmaceutical firm Roche, Downing Street announced.

The Prime Minister’s official spokesman told reporters: “The tests will be free for people who need them, as you would expect.

“NHS and care workers will be prioritised for the tests.”

Prime Minister Boris Johnson had previously said that antibody testing will be a “game-changer “in the fight against COVID-19 as it may reveal how many people have had  coronavirus and may now have a degree of immunity.

What exactly is the antibody test and how does it work?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said: “Antibody blood tests, also called antibody tests, check your blood by looking for antibodies, which show if you had a previous infection with the virus.

“Depending on when someone was infected and the timing of the test, the test may not find antibodies in someone with a current COVID-19 infection.

“Antibodies are proteins that help fight off infections.”

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Public Health England (PHE) said last week that scientific experts at its Porton Down facility had carried out an independent evaluation of a new antibody blood test developed by Swiss pharmaceutical company, Roche.

Professor John Newton, national co-ordinator of the UK coronavirus testing programme, said although it was still unclear to what extent the presence of antibodies indicates immunity to COVID-19, it was still a “very positive” development.

Professor Newton added: “Scientific experts at PHE Porton Down carried out an independent evaluation of the new Roche Sars-CoV-2 serology assay in record time, concluding that it is a highly specific assay with specificity of 100 percent.

“This is a very positive development because such a highly specific antibody test is a very reliable marker of past infection.

“This, in turn, may indicate some immunity to future infection, although the extent to which the presence of antibodies indicates immunity remains unclear.”

The coronavirus tests being used by the NHS already involve taking a swab up the nose or from the back of the throat.

These tests tell if a person currently has COVID-19.

The antibody test is a blood test which searches for antibodies in the blood to see whether a person has had the virus.

The World Health Organisation says there is no evidence people who have antibodies are protected from being infected again.

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